aside banner 교육과학사 추천도서 안내 새로운 신간 소식 교육과학사 자료실 견본 미리보기 제공 강의용 견본신청


지성공간

교육심리학(제2판)
판매가
수량
저자
온기찬
발행일
2015-09-10
ISBN
978-89-254-0985-6(93370)
페이지
564
판형
46배
1950년대 중반에 시작된 앎의 혁명인 인지혁명은 그동안 인간을 피동적이며 타율적 존재로 보는 것을 폐기하고, 능동적이며 자율적인 존재로 인간을 이해하는 혁명적인 변화를 가져왔다. 행동주의 심리학에서 인지심리학으로의 이러한 패러다임의 변화는 인간이해 뿐만 아니라 인간의 삶 전반을 변화시켰다. 인지심리학을 중심으로 한 인간이해는 이제 학제적 성격의 인지과학으로 확장되면서 시간이 지날수록 인지의 중요성은 커지고 있다. 인지과학에서 밝힌 인간에 관한 중요한 연구 결과 중 하나가 인간인지의 중요성이다. 인간의 인지구조가 곧 인간의 삶을 결정짓는다는 것이다. 인지구조의 구성내용에 따라 희 노 애 락과 같은 다양한 인간의 삶의 질을 결정한다는 것이 밝혀진 것이다. 이것은 곧 인간인지가 인간의 삶의 질을 결정한다는 것이고, 세계에 대한 인식이 상대적이라는 것을 의미한다.
이러한 이유로 인지혁명이후 세계의 모든 선진국들이 인간인지, 다시 말해서 앎을 빼어나게 해, 모든 인간의 삶의 질을 높이려는 교육혁명을 시작한 것이다. 즉, 모든 인간을 대상으로 지적 수월성(intellectual excellence)을 추구하고자 하는 것이 오늘의 교육인 것이다. 이처럼 인지혁명에 의한 새로운 인간관과 앎의 과학은 교육을 바꾸었고, 이 교육이 21세기의 삶과 문명을 바꾸고 있기 때문에, 수월성을 추구하는 교육은 우리들의 삶에 선택이 아닌 필수이며 제대로 이해하고 실천하여야 한다(한범숙, 2009). 실제 이러한 노력은 미국의 경우 Bruner를 중심으로 한 학문중심의 교육과정 개혁으로, 1980년대 “위기에 처한 미국(A Nation at Risk)”에서 시작해서 지금까지 지속되고 있는 수월성 교육으로 나타났으며, 교육심리학과 같은 경우는 지식에 관한 새로운 이해와 교수 학습에 대한 재개념화, 이해에 관한 새로운 지식, 새로운 방식으로의 교수 학습설계 등의 구체적 형태로 나타나고 있다(Royer, 2005; Sawyer, 2006, 2014).
이처럼 인지적 관점으로 여전히 빠르게 변화하고 있는 인지과학적 지식을 염두에 두고, 우리 교육현실에서 교육심리학적으로 지적 수월성을 어떻게 하면 추구할 수 있을 것인지를 의식하면서 쓴 이 책이 나온 지도 상당한 시간이 흘렀다. 따라서 몇몇 영역에서 최근의 새로운 지식들을 추가할 필요가 있어서 이번에 개정하게 되었다. 물론 그동안 전혀 수정하거나 첨가하지 않은 것은 아니다. 이 책을 다시 인쇄할 때마다 일부분을 수정 보완하였지만, 개정판이란 이름으로 상당한 부분을 수정 보완하는 작업은 이번이 처음이다. 이 개정된 책이 이 분야에 관심 있는 여러 분들에게 학문적으로 도움이 되었으면 한다.
제2판 머리말 / 3
머리말 / 5

제1장 심리학적 사고의 변천 Ⅰ: 의식경험의 탐구와 정신역동적 견해들 ∙ 29
제1절 심리학의 탄생과 의식의 탐구 ···················································································30
1. 현대과학의 탄생 ················································································································31
과학적 진전에서의 두 개의 제약 / 31 르네상스에서 시작되는 현대과학 / 31
2. 심리학 탄생에 미친 두 영향: 철학과 생리학 ·································································32
철학의 영향 / 32 생리학의 영향 / 34
3. 구조주의심리학: 심리학의 독립 ························································································35
심리학의 독립 / 35 즉시감각적 경험의 분석 / 35 지적풍토 / 36
4. Gestalt심리학 ·····················································································································36
Gestalt의 의미 / 36 Gestalt운동을 이끈 세 사람 / 37
학문적 한계와 인지과학의 등장 / 38
제2절 정신역동적 관점의 심리학 ························································································39
1. 정신분석학 ··························································································································39
정신역동적 체계로서의 정신분석학 / 39 기계론적 은유 / 40
정신구조: 퍼스내리티 / 40 정신 성적 발달단계 / 41 반발과 비판 / 41
2. 자아심리학 ··························································································································42
자아심리학의 대두배경 / 42 미국판 정신분석학 / 43 비판 / 43
교육에서 자아를 쓰는 경우 / 44
3. 제 3세력: 인본주의심리학 ·································································································44
제 3세력의 기본적 견해 / 44 Maslow의 견해 / 45 Rogers의 견해 / 46
제 3세력에 대한 비판 / 46
4. 자아실현이 우리나라 교육에서 일으키는 문제 ·······························································47
자아실현이라는 표현의 문제 / 47
자아실현이 교육의 목적이라는 생각의 문제점 / 47
과학적 논리를 갖추어야 하는 교육적 개념들 / 55

제2장 심리학적 사고의 변천 Ⅱ: 행동주의와 인지심리학 ∙ 57
제1절 행동주의 ······················································································································58
1. 행동주의 개관 ····················································································································58
행동과 학습의 의미 / 58 S-R연합의 기본형태 / 59 행동형성의 기본가정 / 60
행동주의 대두의 지적풍토 / 60 행동주의에로의 걸음 / 61 교육에서의 이해 / 62
행동주의의 유형 / 62
2. 행동주의의 붕괴 ················································································································63
행동주의의 붕괴이유 / 63
제2절 인지심리학 약사 ·········································································································66
1. New Look: 인지혁명의 시작 ····························································································66
행동주의적 사고의 한계 인식 / 66 의식 즉 인지의 재등장 / 66
Bruner의 주도 / 67 지각연구: New Look의 시작 / 68
개념형성에 관한 연구 / 68 New Look의 파장 / 70
인지혁명의 본질과 교육에의 파급 / 70
2. 다른 연구들이 미친 영향 ··································································································71
인간공학에서의 지식 / 71 신생아의 지각기능 / 72 Chomsky의 언어학 / 72
신호탐지 연구에서의 영향 / 73 발달관점의 탈바꿈에서 얻은 지식 / 74
3. 인지심리학: 정보처리적 설명 ···························································································74
인지심리학의 탄생 / 74 컴퓨터 은유 / 75
신경조직의 정보처리: 생리학적 수준의 이해 / 76
심리학적 수준의 이해: 정보처리적 설명 / 77
4. 인지과학의 최근흐름 : 연결주의 ······················································································78
뇌은유를 통한 연결주의(병렬분산처리)적 접근 / 78
체화된 인지 / 81
교육에의 적용: 새로운 교육적 사고의 탄생 / 82

제3장 인지혁명에 의한 교육개혁 ∙ 83
제1절 진보주의교육에 대한 비판과 Bruner의 교육관 ·······················································85
1. Dewey의 진보주의교육 ·····································································································85
Dewey의 나의 교육신조 / 85
2. Dewey에 대한 Bruner의 비판 ·························································································86
3. Bruner가 본 교육: 제 1차 교육혁명 ···············································································88
교육이란? / 89 학교에 대한 견해 / 91 교과에 관한 의견 / 92
교육방법의 본질 / 93 사회진보와 학교의 관계 / 94
제2절 교육개혁의 전개과정 ·································································································94
1. 학교개혁의 요구: 교육개혁을 촉진시킨 주변적 요인 ·····················································94
학교개혁의 요구 / 94 Sputnik Shock / 95 민권운동에서의 항의 / 95
잘못된 진화론의 적용 / 95 균등한 교육적 수혜의 요구 / 96
우리나라에서의 불평등의 징후 / 97
2. 교육개혁의 본질: 지적 수월성의 추구 ············································································98
Bruner 교육관의 요점 / 98 삶의 질과 교육 / 99
3. 위기에 선 국가: 국가적 대응 ·························································································100
인지혁명이 바탕이 된 국가차원의 교육개혁 / 100 검토된 여섯 가지 사항 / 101
미국인에게 보내는 메시지 / 101 위기의 증후 / 103
교육개혁에 대한 제안 / 103 실질적인 정착을 위한 노력들 / 104
4. America 2000과 Goals 2000: 현실에 구체화되는 교육개혁 ·······································106
America 2000의 취지 / 106 개관에서의 말 / 106 추구되는 4개 부분 / 107
6개의 교육목표 / 107 Goals 2000 / 108
5. 우리나라의 교육개혁: 교육개혁종합구상 ·······································································109
우리나라 교육개혁안의 대두배경 / 109 교육개혁종합구상의 내용과 비판 / 110
신교육개혁 / 115

제4장 인간본성의 이해: 발달적 관점 ∙ 117
제1절 인간발달에 관한 일반적 개관 ·················································································119
1. 발달심리학의 탈바꿈 ·······································································································119
두 개의 탈바꿈 / 119 구조에서 과정으로 / 120
탈바꿈의 열매: 인간본성의 새로운 이해 / 121 최근의 탐구경향 / 121
2. 진화와 발달 ······················································································································124
진화개념과 우리나라 교육 / 124 생물학적 진화 / 125 문화적 진화 / 125
3. 유전의 영향 ······················································································································127
유전 환경 논쟁 / 127 유전이 미치는 영향: 행동유전 / 127
XYY염색체의 문제 / 128 선택적 번식 / 131 쌍생아 연구 / 130
4. 신체적 발달 ······················································································································131
신장 / 131 초경의 하강경향 / 133 체중 / 135
제2절 지적발달에 영향을 주는 기본적인 사실들 ····························································136
1. 지적발달에 관한 일반적 지식 ························································································136
형제 수와 출생순위가 미치는 영향 / 136 Zajonc의 합류이론 / 138
호기심 / 139 인간의 지각기능 / 140
2. 초기경험 ···························································································································142
초기경험 연구를 촉발한 연구영역 / 142 정신분석학에서의 지식 / 142
동물행동학에서의 영향 / 142 풍요한 환경과 빈곤한 환경/ 143
3. 사회적 행동의 발달 ·········································································································146
애착행동 / 146 놀이의 중요성 / 148

제5장 인간의 정보처리 ∙ 149
제1절 정보처리의 일반적 개념 ··························································································150
1. 렌즈모델 ···························································································································151
지각과정의 개요 / 151 지각에 관한 Brunswik의 렌즈모델 / 151
렌즈모델의 교육적 함의 / 153
2. 감각정보의 성질 ··············································································································153
중다저장이론 / 153 영사기억: 전체보고와 부분보고 절차 / 155
물리적 특성을 지닌 감각정보: 전유목적 정보 / 158 유목정보도 갖는 영사기억 / 159
단서 불확실성의 효과 / 160 피동적인가 능동적인가? / 160
3. 형태재인과 정보처리 ·······································································································161
특징분석이론: 형태재인의 세 과정 / 161 형태재인의 설명형식의 변화 / 162
특징분석의 생리학적 증거 / 163 특징분석의 한계: 형태재인의 능동성 / 163
형태재인의 새로운 설명: 원형이론 / 164
총체적 처리인가 국소적 처리인가: 개념주도적 처리와 자료주도적 처리 / 165
4. 단기기억의 성질 ··············································································································167
단기기억의 발견과 유지기간 / 167
단기기억이 존재하는 다른 증거: H.M.사례와 근신효과 / 168
단기기억의 저장용량 / 169 단기기억에서의 정보처리의 형태 / 170
작업기억과 정보처리 그리고 장기기억 / 170
제2절 처리수준이론과 병렬분산처리 ·················································································173
1. 중다저장이론의 문제점과 처리수준이론 ········································································173
중다저장이론의 문제점: 처리수준이론이 지적한 사실들 / 173
초기의 처리수준이론 / 175
처리수준이론의 근거가 되는 몇 가지 사실들 / 176
수정된 처리수준이론 / 179
2. 병렬분산처리 ····················································································································181

제6장 장기기억과 지식 ∙ 187
제1절 장기기억에 관한 일반적 지식 ·················································································188
1. 지식의 분류 ······················································································································189
의미적 정보와 삽화적 정보 / 189
서술적 지식, 절차적 지식 및 전략적 지식 / 189
영역-일반 지식과 영역-특수 지식 / 190
Glover 등의 분류: 영역특수, 일반, 및 전략지식 / 191
지식의 분류에 관한 종합 / 191
2. 공간적 지식과 심상 ·········································································································192
단어와 그림의 비교 / 193 좌반구와 우반구에서의 지식 / 194
반분뇌 연구 / 194 심상에 관련된 연구 / 196
3. 지식의 역할과 영향 ·········································································································198
4. 지식의 획득 ······················································································································200
빈도효과 / 200 빈도와 간섭효과 / 200
연습의 분산 / 201 Neves와 Anderson의 지식편집 이론 / 201
제2절 의미적 지식과 표상 ·································································································203
1. 개념 ···································································································································204
유목화의 토대: 일반화와 변별 / 204 유전과 경험에서 얻어지는 유목 / 205
언어적 결정론 / 205 색채유목에 관한 연구 / 205
속성으로서의 유목 / 206 속성들의 결합규칙 / 207
개념의 가변성 / 208 맥락에 따른 가변성 / 208
전형성: 원형에 의한 유목화 / 210 원형과 변형의 복합으로서의 유목 / 211
기저수준 유목 / 213
2. 의미적 지식의 표상 ·········································································································214
계층적 망조직이론 / 215 확산적 활성화이론 / 216 특징-비교이론 / 218
명제적 표상 / 219 명제적 표상의 증거 / 220 지식의 기본단위로서의 명제 / 221
병렬분산처리 / 222

제7장 지 능 ∙ 223
제1절 정신능력으로 본 지난 날의 지능이론들 ································································224
실험심리학적 연구 / 225 요인분석적 방법: 학업수행과의 결부 / 226
Spearman의 2요인 이론 / 226
재치있는 학습능력으로서의 지능과 다양한 초기개념 / 227
Thurstone의 다요인 이론 / 227 Guilford의 SI이론 / 229
Cattell-Horn의 유동적 지능과 결정적 지능 / 230
Carroll의 종합분석: 3계층 이론 / 231 Cattell-Horn-Carroll(CHC) 이론 / 233
제2절 인지활동으로 보는 견해들 ······················································································236
1. 지능이론의 은유들 ···········································································································236
A. 지리학적 은유 ························································································································237
B. 계산적 은유 ····························································································································239
C. 생물학적 은유 ························································································································242
D. 인식론적 은유 ························································································································245
Case의 신 Piaget 이론 / 247
E. 인류학적 은유 ························································································································249
F. 사회생물학적 은유 ·················································································································250
G. 시스템 은유 ····························································································································254
종합적 이해 / 254
2. Sternberg의 삼두이론과 Gardner의 복합지능이론 ·······················································255
A. Sternberg의 삼두이론 ···········································································································256
(1) 지능의 콤퍼넌트 하위이론 ······························································································257
메타콤퍼넌트 / 257 수행 콤퍼넌트 / 259 지식획득 콤퍼넌트 / 260
(2) 지능의 경험 하위이론 ·····································································································261
(3) 지능의 맥락하위이론 ·······································································································263
(4) Sternberg 삼두이론의 종합 ····························································································265
B. Gardner의 복합지능이론 ·······································································································267
비판 / 269
C. 정서지능 ·································································································································270

제8장 사 고 ∙ 273
제1절 사고에 관한 초기연구들 ··························································································274
1. 사고연구의 개관: 1960년까지의 탐구 ············································································275
A. 개념학습에 관련된 연구들 ····································································································275
(1) 공통요소로서의 개념 / 276
(2) 매개과정과 능동적인 가설로서의 개념 / 277
(3) 전략의 사용 / 278
B. 문제해결이 중심이 된 연구들 ·······························································································279
(1) 시행착오로서의 문제해결 / 279
(2) 통찰에 의한 문제해결 / 280
(3) 문제해결 자세 / 281
C. 추리를 중심으로 이루어진 연구 ···························································································282
(1) 분위기 효과 / 283
(2) 내용효과 / 284
D. 1960년 이후의 사고연구 ······································································································285
2. 사고과정에 관한 세부적 분석연구 ·················································································285
Wallas의 분석 / 286 Duncker의 분석 / 287
3. 창조성에 관한 회고적 분석 ····························································································288
A. 퍼스내리티 특성에 관한 분석 ·······························································································289
B. 지적자극이 주어진 성장배경에 관한 분석 ···········································································292
제2절 새로운 사고연구: 정보처리적 분석 ········································································294
1. 전문가 연구 ······················································································································294
A. 의학에서의 전문가와 초심자 ·································································································295
(1) 사실적 지식에서의 차이 / 295
(2) 의미적 지식에서의 차이 / 296
(3) 도식적 지식의 차이 / 298
(4) 전략적 지식에서의 차이 / 300
B. 물리학에서의 전문가와 초심자 ·····························································································302
(1) 사실적 지식에서의 차이 / 302
(2) 의미적 지식에서의 차이 / 303
(3) 도식적 지식에서의 차이 / 304
(4) 전략적 지식의 차이 / 305
(5) 물리학적 사고분석의 종합 / 305
(6) 전문가 연구의 종합 / 305
2. 창조적 사고 구성요인과 직관 ························································································307
A. 창조적 사고를 구성해 주는 요인들 ······················································································307
(1) 지적능력 / 307
고차수준 능력 / 308 기본수준 능력 / 308
(2) 지식 / 310
(3) 사고양식(또는 지적 양식) / 311
(4) 퍼스내리티 / 313
(5) 동기 / 314
(6) 환경적 맥락 / 315
지적 구성요소들의 합류 / 316
B. 직관에 관한 지식 ···················································································································316
3. 교육의 목표: 수월성의 추구를 통한 창조적 인간 ························································319
신중한 연습(Deliberate Practice: DP) / 319
창조적 전문가로의 발달 과정 / 324

제9장 학습과 교수 Ⅰ: 학교학습의 개관과 읽기・글짓기의 교과처리 ∙ 327
제1절 학습과 학교교육: 일반적인 개관 ···········································································329
1. 학습․교수 연구의 약사 ·····································································································330
전통적인 학습의 개념 / 330 새로운 학습개념의 대두: 인지심리학의 영향 / 331
학습과 교수에 관한 세 가지 관점 / 332 반응획득으로서의 학습 / 332
지식획득으로서의 학습 / 333 지식구성으로서의 학습 / 334
새로운 인지적 관점의 학습과 교수가 교육에 미친 영향 / 335
구성주의 교육과 수업설계 원리 / 335
2. 학교교육의 의미: 재능계발 ·····························································································341
학교교육의 두 가지 목표 / 342 재능계발과 교수처치 / 344
교수처치의 효과 / 344
제2절 교과처리의 기초: 읽기와 글짓기 ···········································································347
1. 읽기 ···································································································································347
A. 네 개의 영향요인 ···················································································································348
(1) 세상사에 관한 지식 / 348
(2) 언어 및 메타언어적 지식 / 349
(3) 단기기억과 장기기억의 능력 / 350
(4) 주의를 보내는 능력 / 351
B. 읽기이해의 이론들 ·················································································································351
(1) 자료주도적 이론 / 352
Gough의 이론 / 352
(2) 개념주도적 이론 / 354
Goodman의 이론 / 354
(3) 읽기의 상호작용 이론 / 355
Just와 Carpenter의 상호작용 이론 / 356
(4) 종합된 읽기이해 이론: 쉐마이론 / 356
(5) SQ3R / 357
2. 글짓기 ·······························································································································358
A. Flower와 Hayes의 글짓기 이론 ···························································································360
(1) 과제환경 / 360
효율적인 글짓기 과제환경에 관한 종합분석 결과 / 362
외적저장 기능 / 362
(2) 장기기억 / 363
(3) 활동기억 / 363
계획 / 363 번안 / 364 리뷰 / 364
B. 글짓기에서의 개인차 ··············································································································365
읽기능력과의 관계 / 365 정보처리에서의 차이 / 366
계획에서의 차이 / 367 아이디어 생성에서의 차이 / 368 조직화에서의 차이 / 369
C. 학생들의 글짓기 증진에 관련된 사실들 ···············································································369
글짓기의 양 / 370 또래 편집 / 370 문법 / 371

제10장 학습과 교수 Ⅱ: 교육생산성과 학습자요인 ∙ 373
제1절 교육생산성과 이해의 조건 ······················································································374
1. 교육생산성에 미치는 요인들 ··························································································374
Carroll 연구의 영향 / 375 Walberg의 교육생산성 요인 / 376
사회학에서의 영향 / 377
2. 이해의 성립조건 ··············································································································378
(1) 구문적 지식 / 379
(2) 의미적 지식 / 379
(3) 실용적 지식 / 380
(4) 맥락 / 381
제2절 학습자 요인 ··············································································································381
1. 주제의 파악 ······················································································································382
상위개념 구조로서의 주제 / 382 정교화수준과 주제의 파악 / 383
거시구조와 주제의 파악 / 384
2. 전지식 ·······························································································································384
A. 전지식 ·····································································································································385
B. 선행조직체 ······························································································································385
선행조직체의 정의 / 385 선행조직체에 관한 실험 / 386
불교이해에 미치는 선행조직체의 영향 / 387 교과이해에 미치는 선행조직체 / 387
3. 이해에 대한 모니터링 ·····································································································388
오류과제의 부과 / 389 여러 형태의 과제 / 389
문제에 대한 민감성에서의 차이 / 390 과제평가의 자발성 / 390
지시에 따른 기준설정 / 391 다양한 과제평가 기준 / 391
모니터링 능력의 발달 / 391 불일치성에 대한 모니터링 / 392
평가기준의 조절능력 / 393
4. 학습자의 참여 ··················································································································393
능동적인 정보처리 과정의 특징 / 394 피동적인 처리과정에서의 특징 / 394
적극적인 참여의 효과 / 395
5. 자기조절 학습 ··················································································································396
자기조절 학습의 중요성 / 396 자기조절 학습의 정의 / 397
6. 학생의 인식론적 신념 ·····································································································398
7. 위험감수 ···························································································································400
알려진 일반적인 사실들 / 401
8. 성차 ···································································································································402
9. 신체적 질병 ······················································································································403

제11장 학습과 교수 Ⅲ: 교과처리 환경 ∙ 405
제1절 교재관련 요인 ··········································································································406
1. 교재의 구조 ······················································································································406
2. 교수매체 ···························································································································407
A. 교수매체로서의 TV ················································································································407
B. 라디오방송의 효과 ·················································································································408
C. 컴퓨터의 기능 ························································································································409
3. 단서 ···································································································································411
단서의 분류 / 412 단서효과 / 412
4. 필기 ···································································································································414
필기의 중요성을 부각시킨 이유 / 415 필기의 정보처리적 기능 / 415
능동적으로 과제를 처리하게 하는 필기 / 416 외적저장으로서의 필기 / 416
포섭이론 / 416 필기가 학습하게 하는 것은? / 417
Kiewra의 분석: 강의에 관한 필기와 리뷰 / 418 교과서 학습과 강의학습의 차이 / 420
선택을 위한 보조물 / 421 내적연결을 형성시켜 주는 보조물 / 422
외적연결을 이루는 일 / 423
제2절 교사요인 ····················································································································423
1. 교사효능감 ························································································································424
교사효능감의 변인 / 424
2. 학습목표 ···························································································································425
교수목표의 제공 / 426 기대역할의 강조 / 426 교과요소와의 상호작용 / 426
3. 학습전략 ···························································································································427
교사측면의 학습전략 / 427 조직화된 교수처치로서의 학습전략 / 428
의미구조 형성을 위한 학습전략 / 428 거시구조와 학습전략 / 429
4. 질문 ···································································································································430
질문의 형태와 내용 / 430 교과요소의 처리깊이 / 431
처리깊이에 관한 탐구 / 431 질문의 효과 / 432
질문의 위치와 정보처리 / 433 정교화 질문 / 433 최근의 동향 / 434
5. 교수기법 ···························································································································437
개인차에 맞추는 교수처치 / 438 Tobias의 개념: 수정된 ATI / 438
의미없는 집단적인 교수처치 / 438 교수처치에 대한 정보처리적 설명 / 439
미시교수 기법 / 439 미시교수 기법의 효과 / 440
유추를 통한 교과처리 / 441 유추의 기능 / 441
그림표상의 사용 / 442

제12장 동기와 정서 ∙ 443
제1절 동기이론의 변천과 귀인이론 ··················································································445
1. 동기를 설명하는 생각의 변천 ························································································445
본능설 / 445 정신분석학에서의 생각 / 446
행동주의의 욕구이론 / 446
2. 귀인이론 ···························································································································447
귀인이론으로의 전환과 그 이유 / 447 지각된 원인의 탐구 / 449
Heider의 상식심리학 / 449 발사효과와 탑승효과 / 450
인과의 소재 / 451 Weiner의 3차원이론 / 451
3. 성패경험 ···························································································································452
성패경험 / 452 성패의 귀인에 관한 통합적인 분석 / 453
해결되지 못한 사실들 / 454 인과의 소재에 관한 분석 / 454
능력에의 귀인과 단서정보 / 455 노력에의 귀인과 단서정보 / 455
과제곤란도에의 귀인과 단서정보 / 456 운에의 귀인과 단서정보 / 457
다양하게 이용되는 단서정보 / 457
4. 귀인과 학업성취와의 관계 ······························································································458
학교교육에의 적용 / 458 학교상황에서의 성패경험의 분석 / 458
Kelley의 이론 / 460 지각된 통제와 무력감 / 460
학교에서의 무력감 / 461 통제의 소재와 우울증 / 461
LD의 통제의 소재에 관한 분석 / 461 누적된 실패경험의 문제 / 462
5. 성패귀인과 관련된 다른 이론들 ·····················································································463
자존심 이론 / 463 자기효능감 이론 / 464
자기효능감의 고양 / 465 과제수행에 미치는 모델링 / 466
목표구조와 귀인지각 / 467 도움을 요청하는 판단의 귀인 / 468
제2절 정서와 시험불안 ·······································································································469
1. 정서 이해방식의 변화 ·····································································································469
생리학적인 이해 / 469 임상적인 측면에서의 탐구 / 470
인지적 접근으로의 전환 / 470
2. 시험불안 ···························································································································471
시험불안의 의미 / 471 상태불안과 특성불안 / 472
Spielberger의 정의 / 473 변인간의 관계 / 473 Liebert와 Morris의 제안 / 474
3. 시험불안과 학업성취 ·······································································································474
초기의 생각 / 475 정보처리적 분석의 시작 / 475
처리전 단계의 불안과 주의분산 / 475 처리 단계: 인지적 조작에 미치는 영향 / 476
분석된 결과 / 476 학습습관과 수험기술 / 477 시험불안에 관한 종합적 설명 / 478

제13장 교실내의 상호작용, 체벌, 및 평가 ∙ 479
제1절 교실내의 상호작용 ···································································································480
1. 교사-학생의 상호작용 ······································································································480
교사기대의 고전적 연구 / 481 그 후의 연구동향 / 481
교사기대에 사용하는 정보 / 482 사회심리적 분위기의 영향 / 482
학업능력이 교사기대에 미치는 영향 / 483
2. 교사기대와 학생기대에 미치는 변인 ··············································································484
인지양식의 영향 / 485 배척의 원천으로서의 교사기대 / 485
SES와 전제성의 영향 / 486 학급구조화와 교사구조화 / 487
인지양식에 대한 지식 / 487 교사의 지도력 / 487
학생기대와 교사기대 / 488 학생기대의 변인: 교사에 대한 지각 / 489
학생능력에 따른 교사지각 / 489
3. 교실환경이 미치는 영향 ··································································································490
교실 분위기: 교실환경의 중요성 / 490 교실분위기에 작용하는 변인 / 491
학습분위기 / 491 교실맥락의 영향 / 492
학습형태 / 492 학습형태에 따라 다른 활동목표 / 493
협력학습에 관한 하나의 실험적인 예 / 493
남녀혼성 학급에서의 협력학습 / 494 학생수가 미치는 영향 / 495
학습목표 도달방식의 효과 / 496 논쟁의 기능과 효과 / 496
4. 또래들의 상호작용 ···········································································································497
또래집단에 관한 새로운 연구의 흐름 / 497
그 동안의 또래집단 연구의 개관적 분석 / 497
또래지도 / 497 가르치는 효과 / 498
가르치는 두 가지 이득 / 499 또래지도에서 이득이 나타나는 이유 / 499
역할기대의 효과 / 501 성인지도와 또래지도의 비교 / 502
제2절 체벌과 평가가 미치는 영향 ····················································································503
1. 체벌의 논리와 효과 ·········································································································504
체벌에 대한 찬성과 반대주장 / 504 체벌에 대한 지각 / 505
Bandura의 모델링 이론 / 506 처벌의 억제효과 / 506
2. 평가가 미치는 영향 ·········································································································507
학업평가에서의 문제 / 508 교사가 나타내는 평가의 기능 / 508
피드백의 효과 / 508 Howard와 Maxwell의 분석: 관용편향 평가 / 509
관용편향 이론의 기초지식 / 510 교수효율성 이론 / 511
학생특성 이론 / 511 분석된 결과 / 512
학업평가와 교사기대 / 513 교사기대에서의 초두효과와 근신효과 / 513
교사기대 분석에서 나타난 사실들 / 514
3. 새로운 평가의 흐름 ·········································································································514
학습자에 대한 평가 / 516 교사에 대한 평가 / 516

후 기 ··········································································································································518
참고문헌 ·······································································································································519
찾아보기 ·······································································································································543
온기찬
전북대학교 사범대학 교육학과 졸업
전북대학교 대학원 교육학과 석사과정(교육심리학 전공) 졸업(문학석사)
전북대학교 대학원 교육학과 박사과정(교육심리학 전공) 졸업(교육학 박사)
현 전북대학교, 우석대학교, 전주대학교, 한일 장신대학교 등 출강
저서 및 논문
직관에 관한 최근 연구동향과 교육적 의미(교육학 연구, 1995, 33, 5, 75-102).
전문성의 본질과 직관에서의 역할에 관한 연(교육학 연구, 1996, 34, 3, 53-85).
직관적 사고와 교육(2001, 학지사).
교육학의 이해(2013, 양서원)
번호 제목 작성자 작성일 답변
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